My husband is red-green color-blind and has great difficulty distinguishing between reds/greens, greens/browns, browns/yellow, and blue/purple. It's an X-linked genetic trait, and his brother has the same (dis)ability.
There is a tremendously good book written by Dr. Oliver Sacks, Neurologist, entitled "The Island of the Colorblind", which discusses the trait in wonderful, compelling detail.
One thing that is very apparent is that despite the fact that we see color differently, my husband has much better night vision than I do...he can walk around in the dark and see quite well, while I'm stumbling into things.
The vibrant reds, oranges and yellows of the autumn leaves is one thing that he doesn't see as being very different than the green of summer.
I've been making borosilicate glass leaf pendants in all kinds of colors...and have solicited my husband's input for colors that he can distinguish as different.
Here are two that are currently for sale in my Etsy shop...
Green & Vibrant Blue Glass Leaf Pendant
Pink & Amber Purple Glass Leaf Pendant